Population of Colombia 2014

population-of-columbia-2014Population of Colombia

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the population of the Republic of Colombia for 2014 is estimated at 47,527,060, which makes up about 0.66% of the world’s total population. Colombia is ranked 27th in the world population rankings, behind South Korea, but ahead of Spain. As of February 2012, the population of Colombia was estimated at 47,072,915. Thus, since 2012, the population has grown by 454,145 people or by a growth rate of 0.96%. The last census in Colombia was conducted in 2005. The results of the census indicated that the population was 42,888,592. Thus, since the last census was conducted, the population has grown by 4,638,468 or by a growth rate of 10.82%. Based on the total land area and the population of the country, the population density of Colombia is estimated at 45.64 people per square kilometer or 118.22 people per square mile.

Government of Colombia

The 1991 Constitution of Colombia establishes the government of Colombia as a presidential representative democratic republic and is divided into the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The executive branch consists of the president, vice president, and the Council of Ministers. The president serves as the head of government and the head of state. The current president is Juan Manuel Santos, a member of the Social Party of National Unity. The current vice president is Angelino Garzon, also a member of the Social Party of National Unity. The legislative branch is a bicameral legislation, made up of the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate. The Chamber consists of 166 members and the Senate consists of 102 members. While the Senate members are elected nationally, the Chamber members are elected based on electoral districts. The current President of the Chamber is Hernan Penagos, a member of the Social Party of National Unity, and the current President of the Senate is Juan Fernando Cristo Bustos, a member of the Colombian Liberal Party. The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of Colombia, the Council of State, the Constitutional Court, and the Superior Council of Judicature. The Supreme Court consists of 23 justices, which are split up into the Penal, Civil and Agrarian, and Labor chambers. The current president of the Supreme Court is Ruth Marina Diaz Rueda. Lastly, the major political parties are the Liberal Party, Conservative Party, and the Social Party of National Unity.

Poverty in Colombia

In 2012, Colombia scored 0.719 in the Human Development Index, which ranks 91st out of 187 countries. The score is higher than the world average of 0.694, but below the average score for Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2010, 8.2% of Colombians were believed to live in absolute poverty, which means that the people live on less than $1.25 per day. However, 15.8% of people live on less than $2 per day and 34% live below the national poverty line. As of January 2014, the unemployment rate in Colombia is 11.1% of the labor force. Lastly, around 150,000 – 200,000 people are internally displaced every year and 83% of the internally displaced people are thought to live in extreme poverty.

Education in Colombia

While it is not mandatory, many Colombian children begin their educational career with preschool until age 5. After preschool or starting at age 5, students begin what is known as basic education. Basic education is split up into primary basic education and secondary basic education. According to administration data, 87.4% of students that begin basic education complete the basic education. Following basic education is middle vocational education, which consists of tenth and eleventh grade. Depending on the school that a student attends, a student may be able to focus on academics, business, or some specific vocation that he or she wishes to pursue. If a student wishes to enter into higher education following the middle vocational education, he or she must take and pass the Saber 11 examination. Once he or she graduates from the middle education, he or she will receive a high school diploma. Higher education consists of undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies. Thus, there are options for those students who wish to pursue a specific career instead of continuing in academics.

In 2011, Colombia spent 4.4% of its Gross Domestic Product on education, which is one of the highest rates in all of the Latin America. The total adult literacy rate is 93.6% of the adult population. 97.8% of male youths are literate and 98.7% of female youths are literate. Lastly, the school-life expectancy is 13.6 years from start to finish.

colombia-population-2014-rockGeography of Colombia

Out of the total land area of 1,141,748 square kilometers or 440,831 square miles, there are six main natural regions in Colombia: Andes Mountains, Pacific coastal region, Caribbean coastal region, the plains region, the Amazon Rainforest, and the insular area. Colombia borders Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Panama, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Caribbean Sea. It is also a part of the geographic region known as the Ring of Fire, which consists of 91% of the world’s total earthquakes and 80% of the world’s largest earthquakes. Lastly, over 11% of the land area of Colombia is protected area as a part of the National Park System.

Health and Health Care in Colombia

The 1991 Colombian Constitution stated that every Colombian citizen has a right to social security. Then, in 1993, Law 100 created a National Obligatory Health Insurance, which consists of contributive and subsidized regiments. In the contributive regimen, both employers and employees contribute 12.5% of his or her paycheck to health insurance companies similar to HMOs. These organizations then contract for services with the health facilities throughout the country. The subsidized regimen covers about 51% of Colombians and covers the poor, unemployed, and indigent that cannot contribute to the health care system themselves. Other than taxes, this portion is paid for through a 1.5% contribution out of the 12.5% taken out of checks, so that everyone may be in solidarity together. Overall, about 96% of Colombians are covered in one way or the other. However, while in theory the system was supposed to work well, there have been many issues in regards to waiting times, denial of treatment, and denial of certain services.

As of 2010, there were 1.5 physicians, 10 hospital beds, and 6.2 nurses or midwives per 10,000 residents. The per capita health expenditure is $518 and the total expenditure on health as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product is 7.6%, of which, the government contributes 72.7%. While 92.9% of Colombia uses improved drinking water sources, only 72.5% of those in rural areas use such sources. Overall, 78.1% use improved sanitation facilities, but only 65.4% of those in rural areas use such facilities. The under-five mortality rate is 18 deaths per 1,000 children and the infant mortality rate is 15 deaths per 1,000 infants. The overall life expectancy is 73.8 years and women are expected to live much longer than men. Lastly, about 0.5% of the population has been diagnosed with HIV.

Colombia Profile

Population of Chile 2014

population-of-chile-2014Chile Population 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the population of the Republic of Chile for 2014 is estimated at 17,666,068, which makes up about 0.25% of the population. Chile is ranked 60th in terms of population rankings, behind Niger, but ahead of Burkina Faso. As of July 1, 2013, the population was recorded at 17,619,708. Thus, since last July, the population has grown by 46,360 people or by a growth rate of 0.26%. The last official census in Chile was taken in 2002. The census recorded the population at about 15,116,435. Thus, since the last census, the population has grown by 2,549,633 people or by a growth rate of 16.87%. Based on the total land area and the total population of the country, the population density of Chile is about 23.77 people per square kilometer or 61.56 people per square mile.

Demographics of Chile

The majority of the population identifies as either white or mestizo, which is a mixed ethnic group. However, the majority of the population seems to be of Caucasian origin. There is also an Amerindian population that makes up the country. The main language of the Republic of Chile is Spanish; however, the Chilean dialect of Spanish is a slightly different variation of the standard Spanish language. There are also some indigenous languages throughout the country.

Government of Chile

The Constitution of Chile establishes the country as a representative democratic republic made up of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. However, the 1988 plebiscite really opened up the government to be what it is today, allowing for constitutional amendments in the future. The president of Chile is the head of the executive branch, head of government, and head of state. The president serves four-year terms and cannot be reelected sequentially. However, there is no limit in the number of terms that a person can be president, as long as the terms are not sequential. As of March 11, 2014, the President of Chile is Michelle Bachelet, a member of the Chilean Socialist Party. In fact, she is the first person to win the presidency twice since 1932. The legislative branch is known as the National Congress, which is made up of two chambers: the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Senators serve eight-year terms, while deputies only serve four-year terms. The Senate consists of 38 seats and the Chamber of Deputies consists of 120 seats. The current President of the Senate is Guido Girardi, a member of the Party for Democracy, and the current President of the Chamber of Deputies is Edmundo Eluchans Urenda, a member of the Independent Democratic Union Party. The judicial branch is independent of the other branches of the government. It consists of a Court of Appeals, a system of military courts, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Supreme Court of Chile, which does not contain the power of judicial review like the United States Supreme Court has. The Supreme Court has twenty-one justices, otherwise known as ministros, including one president that serves for two years. As of January 6, 2014, the President of the Supreme Court of Chile is Sergio Munoz. Lastly, Chilean citizens have a right to vote for the presidential elections, which are judged fairly and freely.

Geography of Chile

Chile makes up 756,950 square kilometers or 292,260 square miles of area on the western border of South America. The country stretches 4,300 kilometers or 2,670 miles from north to south and 350 kilometers or 217 miles from east to west. It is located within the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the geographic location in the world where 90% of the world’s earthquakes and 81% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur. On the eastern border of the country lies the Andes Mountains, separating Chile from Argentina. The Atacama Desert lies in the northern portion of the country and contains high concentrations of cooper and nitrates. The Central Valley is the dominating agricultural and population region since it contains Santiago, which is the largest metropolis in the country. Lastly, southern Chile is made up of forests, large areas of land perfect for grazing, and even a string of volcanoes.

chile-populationEducation in Chile

The Chilean Constitution mandates that students must attend primary and secondary school. Primary school typically lasts from ages 6 to 13 and secondary school lasts from ages 14 to 17 or 18. Secondary school is broken up into three different categories after the first two years. There is a Scientific-Humanist option, Technical-Professional option, or an Artistic option based on the goals and desires of the student. If the students choose the Technical-Professional route, they can attend industrial, commercial, technical, or polyvalent schools. After secondary school, students can choose to attend a university or a professional/technical training center. In order to obtain admission into a university, a student must take and pass the University Selection Test, managed by the Ministry of Education. In terms of tuition coverage, about 93% of students in the primary and secondary systems are covered by governmental education vouchers and thus do not need to pay tuition. The other 7% of students attend non-subsidized private schools throughout the country. The total adult literacy rate in Chile is 98.6% of the adult population. The male and female youth literacy rate is 98.9% of the youth population. 93.4% of relevant males attend primary schools and 93.3% of relevant females attend primary schools.

Since 2011, there have been a series of student protests based on the treatment of education in Chile. Students from both the university and secondary levels have been occupying schools and picketing, demanding better education legislation in the country. Many demands from the university level include increased state support for the public universities, free public education, a better accreditation process to ensure quality of schools, and prohibiting for-profit institutions. The high school students are demanding central government control over the lower school systems, increased spending and higher pay for teachers, and better development of the vocational schools. Some progress is thought to be underway as some of the main members of the protests have been elected to the parliament. Lastly, these protests were thought to stem from the 2006 student protests during President Bachelet’s first term.

Health and Health Care in Chile

Chile has two different insurance forms for health care: FONASA and ISAPRE. About 73.5% of the population participates in FONASA, while 15.9% participates in ISAPRE. The remaining population is uninsured. FONASA is the government health insurance and every worker, other than the poorest working class, pays 7% of his or her income towards the health insurance. This health insurance will cover the dependents of a worker’s family, along with pregnant women until the sixth month after the baby’s birth. ISAPRE also involves paying 7% of a worker’s income, but since it is the private option, many people opt to pay more in order to have more options and coverage. While there are two different types of insurance, there are also two types of care: modality of institutional care and free choice modality. The modality of institutional care involves simply using public health care facilities. Free choice modality involves using professional and private health care facilities, along with the ability to use some public hospitals as well. In order to qualify for free choice modality, an employee must pay more than the standard 7% known as the Health Care Bonus.

The life expectancy for Chilean citizens is 79.7 years. The under-five mortality rate is 9 deaths per 1,000 children under five, while the infant morality rate is 8 infant deaths per 1,000 births. Also, 5.9% of births are considered to be low birth weight. 98.5% of the population uses improved drinking water sources and 98.7% of the population uses improved sanitation facilities. About 90% of the population has immunizations for the major illnesses and diseases. Lastly, about 0.4% of the population is considered to have HIV.

Religion in Chile

The majority of the population identifies as members of the Roman Catholic Church. In fact, 89% of the population is considered to be Roman Catholic. The other 11% of the population identifies as some denomination of Protestantism. Also, there is a very small Jewish population in the country.

Sports in Chile

The three major sports in the Republic of Chile are football (American soccer), tennis, and traditional rodeo. There are even some indigenous sports, which all originate from a sport called “palin”, which is similar to hockey. Chile was also the only Latin American country at the first Olympic Games in 1896. Sports are hardly sponsored in Chile. Therefore there are only a few public sport centers, while private sport clubs are often exclusive and very expensive. The national sport is soccer, every weekend you will see people playing on any suitable field.

Food in Chile

Dishes in Chile frequently consist of seafood and high-end red wine. It is nothing like Mexican food, which frequently uses the chili pepper. Its dishes combine influences from both Europe and its indigenous populations. The country also makes a lot of different types of beef dishes. Traditional Chilean food gets its diverse flavors from the diversity in the products that are naturally available due to the varying landscape. But naturally people from different regions also have different eating habits. Then you have the influences of various cultures with the European, Native American and Spanish culture being foremost in exerting their sense of taste.

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Historical Population of Chile

The population of the Republic of Chile has continually increased over the last half a century.  However, there have been times throughout this time where the population slowed its increase down and sped its increase up.  Over the last few decades, the population has seemed to slow down its increase.

Year Population (millions)
1960 7.652
1965 8.656
1970 9.578
1975 10.42
1980 11.18
1985 12.11
1990 13.19
1995 14.41
2000 15.42
2005 16.3
2010 17.11
2011 17.27

Projected Population of Chile

The population of the Republic of Chile is expected to continue its trend of population increasing up until 2045.  Then, the population is expected to decrease.  The birth rates are expected to decrease from about 14 births per 1000 people to about 10.2 births per 1000 people.  However, the death rates are expected to increase from about 6.3 deaths per 1000 people to about 11.4 deaths per 1000 people.

Year Population (Millions) Percent Increase
2015 17.816 2.4%
2020 18.448 3.5%
2025 18.970 2.8%
2030 19.360 2.1%
2035 19.613 1.3%
2040 19.726 0.58%
2045 19.719 -0.04%
2050 19.639 -0.41%

Other Resources

Lear more about Chile population statistics in 2013 here.

Population of Argentina 2014

population-of-argentina-2014Population of Argentina 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the current population of the Argentine Republic is estimated to be 41,899,801, which makes up about 0.58% of the total world population. Argentina is ranked 32nd in the world population rankings, behind Kenya, but ahead of Algeria. On July 1, 2013, the population was recorded as 41,446,246. Thus, since last July, the population has grown by about 453,555 or by a growth rate of 1.09%. The 2010 World Population Prospects reported that the population was 40,412,000. Thus, since 2010, the population has grown by 1,487,801 people or by a growth rate of 3.68%. The population in 2000 was estimated to be about 36,931,000. Thus, since 2000, the population has grown by 4,968,801 people or by a growth rate of 13.45%. Based on the total land area and the total population of the country, the population density of Argentina is about 15.3 people per square kilometer or 39.65 people per square mile.

Government of Argentina 2014

The Constitution of Argentina is the guiding legal document and framework for Argentina’s government. The country is considered a federal constitutional republic and a representative democracy. The government is made up of three branches that engage in checks and balances: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch consists of the president and his or her cabinet. The president is the commander-in-chief and has the ability to veto laws passed by the legislative branch. Since December of 2007, the president has been Cristina Kirchner, and as of December of 2013, the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers has been Jorge Capitanich. The legislative branch, known as the National Congress, is a bicameral legislation, made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The President of the Senate is also the Vice-President, who is currently Amado Boudou, and Julian Dominguez currently presides over the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 72 seats and the Chamber of Deputies has 257 seats. The judicial branch is made up of numerous federal judges and a Supreme Court. The President of Argentina appoints all nine members of the Supreme Court. The current President of the Supreme Court is Dr. Ricardo Lorenzetti. Lastly, there is universal suffrage in Argentina that allows for secret and equal voting in the elections for the government officials, but it is also mandatory for all citizens to vote.

Geography of Argentina 2014

The total land area of Argentina is 2,780,400 square kilometers or 1,073,518 square miles. The maximum distance from north to south is 3,694 kilometers or 2,295 miles and the maximum distance from east to west is 1,423 kilometers or 884 miles. The country borders five countries, which include Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, and Uruguay to the east. The highest point in the country is also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. Mount Aconcagua, which is in the Mendoza province, reaches 6,959 meters or 22,831 feet above sea level. The lowest point in the country is also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. Laguna del Carbon in the Santa Cruz province reaches -105 meters or -344 feet below sea level. Lastly, the Parana and Uruguay rivers join together to form the Rio de la Plata, which helps form the border between Argentina and Uruguay.

Language in Argentina 2014

The national language of Argentina is Spanish, otherwise known as Castilian in Hispanophone countries. The most frequent dialect of Castilian is Rioplatense, whose speakers are mainly located in the Rio de la Plata basin. Besides Spanish, the most widely spoken language is English. 42.3% of Argentineans claim to speak some English. However, only about 15.4% of those that claim to speak some English actually have a high level of English comprehension. But, English is taught in the schools since elementary school. Another prominent language throughout Argentina is the Brazilian dialect of Portuguese. There are also decent sized populations that speak Italian, a dialect of Arabic, and Standard German. Lastly, due to the large number of indigenous communities, there also exist a large number of indigenous languages spoken throughout the country. For example, Guarani and Quechua are two indigenous languages spoken in their respective regions.

population-of-argentina-2014-educationEducation in Argentina 2014

According to UNICEF, in 2012, the total adult literacy rate was 97.9% of the population. However, the youth literacy rate of males is 99% and the youth literacy rate of females is 99.4%. Thus, the younger population is receiving better education than the older generation, which signals an advance in society for the upcoming generation. 98.9% of males participate and attend primary schools, while 99.1% of females participate and attend the primary schools. Then, about 87.5% of males participate in secondary school, while 90.6% of females participate in secondary school. Argentina has a mandatory school system from ages 5 to 17. The first three years of secondary school are considered compulsory, but the last two to three years are not required. After secondary school, students have an option to attend a university. In fact, there are currently 39 national universities, financed by the Ministry of Finance. However, if students wish to pursue a different career track, there is a strong network of vocational schools where students can study a specific trade.

Health and Health Care in Argentina 2014

The health care system in Argentina is made up of three different proponents: private, public, and social. The private sector covers approximately 5% of the population. It is similar to the private health care in the United States, where individuals will pay their insurance companies and receive benefits based on their specific plans. The public sector covers about 50% of the population and is financed through the taxes. Health care is considered to be a universal human right in Argentina. Thus, regardless of income, nationality, or legal status, any person in Argentina has the right to use the health care facilities. However, over the past few years, the number of immigrants has increased, along with the number of unemployed. Thus, the public sector of the health care system is very crowded, resulting in waiting periods for health care. The public health care facilities also suffer from a lack of supplies. The increase in the usage of the public system has not been met with a proper increase in spending for necessary supplies or for updates in the technology. Instead, the government has decided to focus on spending more on drugs and pharmaceuticals. The social sector is known as the Obras Sociales. Every person that is considered to have formal employment must pay into this type of health care. The Obras Sociales is run by the trade unions for each sector. The employers and employees each pay a fixed rate for health insurance, which then subsidizes the actual health care costs of the employee. As of 2011, 5.3% of Argentina’s GDP was spent on health care.

As of 2012, the life expectancy of someone born in Argentina is 76.1 years. The under-five mortality rate was 14 deaths per 1,000 children under five years. The infant mortality rate is 13 infant deaths per 1,000 births. About 7.2% of children are born with low birth weight. As of 2011, 99.2% of the population uses improved drinking water sources and 96.3% of the population uses improved sanitation facilities. Lastly, only 0.4% of the population has been diagnosed with HIV in Argentina.

Argentina Profile

Argentina Population Projections

Based on the current birth, death, and migration rates of the Argentine Republic, the population is expected to increase to approximately 42.08 million people by the year 2015, which is an increase of about 1%. Then, by the year 2020, the population is expected to reach 43.69 million people, an increase of approximately 4.9% from the current population. Continuing this trend, the population will reach 45.17 million by the year 2025, increasing by 8.4% from the current population of the country. By 2030, the population will hit 46.48 million, increasing by about 11.6% from the current population. Then, by 2035, the population will increase by 14.3% and by over 1 million people up to about 47.618 million people. Also, by 2040, the population will increase to about 48.59 million people, an increase of about 16.6%. Lastly, by the mid-century mark, the population will top 50 million, reaching a population of about 50.003 million people, which will be an increase of about 20%.

Argentina Demographics

Argentina, similar to the United States, is considered to be a country of many immigrants. In fact, about 86% of the population claims to be of European descent. Then, an approximate 8% of the population is considered to be Mestizo, which is a person of mixed descent of European and American Indian. Also, an approximate 4% is of Arab or Middle Eastern descent. The last 2% is of miscellaneous races from around the globe.

Religion in Argentina

The Argentine Republic guarantees the freedom of religion constitutionally, but the government has to support the Roman Catholic Church economically. In fact, about 92% of the country identify as Christian (70%-90% out of that 92% is Roman Catholic). About 3% of the population identifies as agnostic, while 1% identify as atheists. About 2% of the population is Muslim, while only 1% of the population is Jewish. However, Argentina is considered to have the largest Jewish population of any other Latin American country. Also, the Protestant religion is the religion whose followers regularly attend the church services.

Sports in Argentina

Argentina’s national sport since 1953 is pato, which is a game played on the back of a horse with a six-handle ball. It is supposed to be a combination of polo and basketball. While pato is the national sport of the country, the most popular sport is football (or American soccer). The Argentina national team has won 25 major international championships. In fact, the Argentine Football Association (AFA) contains 3,377 football clubs. The second most popular sport is basketball; in fact, the national team is ranked first by the International Basketball Federation.

Argentinean Food

As is noted by the high percentage of Europeans in the country, there is a high cultural influence by Europe. The same goes for the food and cuisine throughout the country. The Argentine Republic consumes the second most amount of beef in the entire world due to its extreme popularity throughout the country. The cattle are fed with only grass and raised on an open range. Not only is beef a very important part of the country, but the country is also the fifth most important producer of wine in the entire world. The province of Mendoza actually accounts for 70% of the total production of wine in Argentina.

 

Population of Peru 2014

population-peru-2014The population of the Republic of Peru for 2014 is estimated at 30,970,408. This is based on the number of births, the number of deaths, the net migration rate, the population growth rate, and the population of 2013. Peru’s population makes up about 0.43% of the world’s total population. Peru is ranked 40th in the world population rankings, behind Afghanistan, but ahead of Venezuela. In July of 2013, the population was estimated at 30,475,144. Thus, since last July, the population has grown by 495,264 people or by a growth rate of 1.63%. The last census was conducted in 2007 and it recorded the population at 28,220,764. Thus, since the last census, the population has grown by 2,749,644 people or by an average annual growth rate of 1.39%. Based on the total land area and the total population of the country, the population density of Peru is estimated at 24.2 people per square kilometer or 62.67 people per square mile.

Demographics of Peru

The Peruvian population mainly identifies as part of the mestizo ethnic group, which is a group of mixed ancestries. The next largest ethnic group is the Quechua ethnic group. The rest of the population consists of small populations of the Aymara, Amazonian, Mulatto, and White ethnic groups. The official language of the Republic of Peru is Spanish. However, there are approximately 105 individual languages throughout the country. But, about 11 of these languages are considered to be extinct. Lastly, the literacy rate is considered to be about 85%.

Religion in Peru

The majority of the population of the Republic of Peru identifies as Roman Catholic (over 75% of the population). However, there have also been faiths and religions that are based on the worship of the Sun god, the Pachamama, and other aspects of nature. Also, there are other faiths and churches due to the work of missionaries. However, overall, the population of Peru is mainly religious, with very few claiming to be atheist or agnostic.

Sports in Peru

As is the same for many Latin American countries, the main sport of the Republic of Peru is football (American soccer). Football is the sport that is played by people of all social classes, ages, and skill levels. Another popular sport throughout the country is volleyball, especially women’s volleyball. Lastly, bullfighting is a very popular sport, despite attempts by pro-animal lobbies to get rid of bullfighting.

Government of Peru 2014

As established by the Constitution of Peru, the government of Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic under a multi-party system in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The executive branch consists of the president, prime minister, and the Council of Ministers. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The president also appoints the prime minister and the Council of Ministers. The current president is Ollanta Humala, a member of the Gana Peru alliance. The prime minister is simply the head of the Council of Ministers. The current prime minister, as of February 24, 2014, is Rene Cornejo, an independent politician in Peru. The legislative branch is a unicameral body called Congress. Congress consists of 130 members that serve five-year terms. While either the executive or legislative branches may propose bills, only Congress can pass the bills. The Gana Peru alliance has the largest number of seats in Congress, followed by Fuerza 2011. Lastly, the judicial branch is independent of both the executive and legislative branches. The head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court of Peru, which consists of three supreme sectors: civil, criminal, and constitutional and social. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is Francisco Tavara.

Education in Peru 2014

According to the Constitution, education is both compulsory and free for the primary and secondary levels. In fact, depending on a student’s academic ability and financial situation, a student may be able to receive higher education without cost at a public university. Schooling begins in March and lasts until December. Primary schooling begins at age six and lasts for six years, while secondary schooling lasts five years. Students have the option to attend technical schools instead of higher education universities. Bachelor degree programs typically last five years in Peru. Lastly, the Minister of Education, currently Patricia Salas O’Brien oversees and administers the education system in the nation.

As of 2012, the total adult literacy rate in Peru was 89.6% of the adult population. 98% of male youths are literate, while only 96.7% of female youths are literate. About 81.5% of students that start primary school will finish all the years of schooling, but about 97.1% of children enroll in primary school. In 2012, the Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Peru last among 65 countries in mathematics, science, and reading performance. Lastly, the government spends about 2.6% of the annual Gross Domestic Product on education.

Water Supply and Sanitation in Peru 2014

In the 1980s, only 30% of the population had water coverage and 9% had sanitation coverage. Now, the Ministry of Housing, Construction, and Sanitation oversee the supply and sanitation of water. But, there have been large improvements to the water supply and, as of 2011, 95.3% have access to improved drinking water sources, though only 66.1% of those in rural areas have such access. Also, 71.6% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, but only 38.4% of those in rural areas have such access. Some current challenges that the country faces include poor service quality, deficient sustainability of the current water systems in place, and a lack of financial resources to improve the water sources. Lastly, in 2006, President Garcia announced his plan to start an investment project to help provide water for everyone.

Health and Health Care in Peru 2014

About 45% of the population is considered to be indigenous. Thus, the health care of the country is very unique because the indigenous use medical practices that their ancestors utilized. Other than that, the Ministry of Health handles about 80% of the public sector’s health services. The Ministry is funded by taxes and loans. Peru has a form of a social security program known as EsSALUD, which is funded by payroll taxes that every employer must pay for their employees. However, overall, Peru spends about 2.7% of its annual Gross Domestic Product on health. There are about 9.2 physicians per 10,000 people and 12.7 nurses and midwives per 10,000 people.
The under-five mortality rate is 18 deaths per 1,000 children under the age of five. The infant mortality rate is 14 deaths per 1,000 infants, while the neonatal mortality rate is 9 deaths per 1,000 infants. The average life expectancy for a Peruvian citizen is 74.5 years with women living longer than men. About 0.4% of the population has been diagnosed with HIV. 37% of deaths result from communicable diseases, 46% result from noncommunicable diseases, and 17% result from injuries. Lastly, as of 2008, 21.7% of women over the age of 20 were obese and 11.1% of men over the age of 20 were obese.

Machu Picchu Peru

7,000 feet above sea level and nestled on a small hilltop between the Andean Mountain Range, the majestic city soars above the Urabamba Valley below. The Incan built structure has been deemed the “Lost Cities”, unknown until its relatively recent discovery in 1911. Archaeologists estimate that approximately 1200 people could have lived in the area, though many theorize it was most likely a retreat for Incan rulers. Due to it’s isolation from the rest of Peru, living in the area full time would require traveling great distances just to reach the nearest village. Machu Picchu is vulnerable to threats from a variety of sources. While natural phenomena like earthquakes and weather systems can play havoc with access, the site also suffers from the pressures of too many tourists. Traveling from Cusco through the Urubamba Valley to Machu Picchu is a journey that emanates ancient history from start to finish. It’s here that active adventurers can step back in time and literally walk in the footsteps of the Inca.

Road to Machu Picchu

population-peru-2014-povertyPoverty in Peru 2014

In 2004, about 48.5% of the Peruvian population was considered to be living in poverty. However, as of 2012, according to the World Bank, only 25.8% of the population is considered to be living in poverty now. A majority of the poverty accounts for the indigenous populations living in rural areas. These indigenous have little access to health care, quality education, and poor transportation infrastructure. Thus, due to their location in these rural areas, they are left behind economically. One particularly poor area is the Andean highlands where the Quechua and Aymara communities live. Women are also highly affected by poverty, especially in the rural areas. Because of the problem of the location in rural areas, many people have decided to migrate to urban areas to allow for more opportunities to escape a life of poverty. Migration is a large reason that the poverty rate has declined. Also, the economy was boosted after a 2006 trade agreement with the United States. Lastly, since the end of 2013, many experts have worried about the effect of climate change on the reduction in poverty. In 2012, the Amazon has recently ceased emitting oxygen and began to emit carbon dioxide. Many speculate that this climate change has been the cause of many droughts in the Amazon, which has affected poverty.

Historical Population of Peru

The population of the Republic of Peru has consistently increased over the last half a century.  However, the increase has slightly slowed down near the latter half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.

Year Population (millions)
1960 9.929
1965 11.47
1970 13.119
1975 15.14
1980 17.29
1985 19.46
1990 21.69
1995 23.83
2000 25.86
2005 27.56
2010 29.08
2011 29.4

Projected Population of Peru

The population of the Republic of Peru is expected to follow the same sort of trends that the historical data shows.  One reason of this is due to the high birth rates, which will remain between 20 and 11 births per 1000 people.  Also, the death rates will remain between 5 and 9 deaths per 1000 people.  Also, the migration rate will remain positive over the next 37 years.

Year Population (millions) Percent Increase
2015 30.715 0.8%
2020 32.344 5.3%
2025 33.914 4.9%
2030 35.281 4.0%
2035 36.408 3.2%
2040 37.272 2.4%
2045 37.863 1.6%
2050 38.197 0.9%