Population of China 2016

population-of-china-2014Population of China 2016

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rates, and the population of 2015, the current population of the People’s Republic of China is estimated to be about 1,390,510,630. China’s population makes up around 19.3% of the world’s population. The current estimated population indicates a growth of 36,510,630 people or a population growth of 2.7% during 2013. As a result of the current population of China, it remains the most populous country in the entire world. China has about 130 million more people than the second largest country in the world, India. Based on the population and the total area of the country, the population density of China in 2016 is estimated to be about 145 people per square kilometer or 375 people per square mile.

One-Child Policy in China 2016

As a result of the continuously growing population of China, the government enacted a form of population control, officially known as the Family Planning Policy, otherwise known as the One-Child Policy. In 1979, the Chinese government introduced the policy as a response to the growing social, economic, and environmental issues that came due to the high population of the country. The premise of the policy is to discourage (and even sometimes prevent) families from having more than one child. There are some exceptions to the policy, however. If the first child is a girl or is disabled, the family can have another child. Also, if neither parent has siblings, two children are allowed. In fact, as of November 2016, the policy was updated to allow for a family to have two children if one of the parents is an only child. Some controversies surrounding the policy, both in China and throughout the rest of the world, include the increase in forced abortions, female infanticide, and an increased imbalance among the sexes in China.

Education in China 2016

It is required that children in China attend school for at least nine years. The nine years of required schooling is completely free to the students. They start school around the age of six in a primary school system and then move to a junior middle school around age eleven. As of 2011, over 81% of Chinese students continued their education to receive a secondary education degree. In order to enter into a secondary institution, a student must take the Gaokao, which is China’s national university entrance exam. Each province determines the Gaokao, but there are three standard subjects on every test: Chinese, Mathematics, and a foreign language (typically English). Some other common subjects offered are Physics, Chemistry Biology, History, Geography, and Political Education. Also, teachers must go through a significant level of training before actually teaching in the classroom in order to uphold the high standards of education in China.

Health Care in China 2016

Beginning in the 1950s, the Chinese government worked to establish a public health program in order to combat the growing health concerns in the country. Over the years since the 1950s, most of the health care in China became mostly privatized, which, in return, resulted in an increase in the quality of the education as well. In 2009, China invested around $125 billion in a 3-year health care initiative. By 2011, as a result of the initiative, around 95% of the country has health insurance. Also, it has become the world’s third largest supplier of pharmaceuticals. Some health concerns in China include respiratory problems that come as a result of the air pollution, which caused 1.2 million premature deaths in 2010, a high portion of cigarette smokers, and lastly obesity among the youth in the urban parts of China. The average life expectancy in China is about 75 years and infant mortality is 12 infants per 1000 births.

Cuisine in China 2016

There are eight standard culinary traditions throughout the region of China: Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Szechuan, and Zhejiang. Each style has certain characteristics based on their geographic location and traditions. Anhui cooking derives from the cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains. It uses a wide variety of herbs and vegetables, especially bamboo and mushrooms. Cantonese is characterized by the idea of “dim sum”, which are small dishes. Many bite-sized portions are prepared to allow the person eating to experience the tastes of many different dishes, including rice rolls, turnip cakes, and stir-fried green vegetables. Another Cantonese style of dining is called “yum cha”, which simply is the combination of dim sum dishes with tea. Fujian’s influence comes from its geographical location near the coast and the mountains. Various slicing techniques and serving the dishes in some sort of soup or broth also characterize the cuisine. Hunan dishes tend to be the hotter and spicier dishes with a variety of ingredients as a result of the agriculture in the region.

Jiangsu cuisine is one of the most popular forms of cuisine in the country. It combines different styles together and is famous across the world. Most of its dishes involve some sort of meat, whether it is duck, seafood, or poultry. Shandong cuisine is quite popular in Northern China. This cuisine is known for its plethora of different techniques used while cooking and its usage of seafood. Szechuan cuisine tends to use a lot of garlic, chili peppers, and peppercorns. Some other frequent ingredients include peanuts, ginger, and sesame. Lastly, Zhejiang cuisine includes four different styles: Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Ningbo, and Shnghai. These dishes tend to be fresh instead of greasy, and the specifics for each styles come from the location of each area.

China One Child Policy

population-of-china-2014-transportationTransportation in China 2016

There are a large variety of transportation systems throughout China. China has the largest highway system in the world, totaling around 53,000 miles of highway. China has also become the world’s largest automobile market, even higher than the United States. Despite the number of people that own automobiles, many people, especially in urban areas, own bicycles. In 2012, around 470 million people owned a bicycle. Also, China has a sophisticated and busy railway system, which is owned by the state. In 2010, the system carried around 1.68 billion passengers. China takes pride in its high-speed railway system, which includes the world’s longest high-speed line. Currently, there exists about 10,000 kilometers worth of high-speed line. By 2020, there is expected to be about 16,000 kilometers of high-speed line. Lastly, in 2011, there was approximately 1,910 active commercial aircrafts in China. However, according to Boeing, that number should increase to almost 6,000 by 2031. But, still, about 80% of the airspace in China is limited to military usage.

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Population of Asia 2016

Population of Mexico 2016

population-of-mexico-2014Population of Mexico 2016

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2015, the current population of the United Mexican States is estimated to be about 123,278,559. The Mexican population makes up about 1.71% of the entire world’s population and ranks 11th in population rankings, behind Japan, but ahead of the Philippines. However, because of the rate that Mexico’s population is growing and the rate that Japan is decreasing, it will not be long before Mexico overtakes it in the population rankings. Mexico is the second-most populous country in North America, behind the United States, but ahead of Canada. At the end of 2015, the population was 122,332,399. Therefore, since the start of 2016, there has been an approximate growth of 946,160 people, or a growth rate of about 0.77%. Based on the total population and the total area, the population density of Mexico is estimated to be about 62.5 people per square kilometer or 161.87 people per square mile.

Geography of Mexico

Mexico is made up of thirty-one individual and sovereign states, each of which has its own constitution and government. However, they all fall under the jurisdiction of the Mexican Federal government. Mexico is located in North America to the south of the United States and to the north of Central America. Its total land area, 1,972,550 square kilometers or 761,606 square miles, make it the 14th largest country in terms of land area. The Rio Grande determines the northern border of Mexico with the United States and the borders between Guatemala and Belize determine the southern borders of Mexico. Mexico is made up of two mountain rages: Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental. The Sierra Nevada, which is also known as the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, crosses through the center of the country. Lastly, the highest point in Mexico is the Pico de Orizaba, which reaches 5,700 meters or 18,701 feet.

Mexican Government

Mexico is a federation with a representative, democratic, and republican government. The Mexican Constitution was ratified in 1917 and established the three levels of government: the Federal Union, state governments, and municipal governments. The Federal Union is broken up into three branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The President of the United Mexican States, currently Enrique Pena Nieto, who has veto power over laws passed by the legislative branch and is the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military, heads the Executive Branch. The Legislative Branch is a bicameral Congress, composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Congress makes laws, declares war, establishes taxes and the budget, and approves any diplomatic appointment. The Chamber of Deputies is made up of 300 deputies, while the Senate is made up of 128 Senators. The Judicial Branch is the Supreme Court of Justice, which has eleven judges that the President appoints. Lastly, the three major political parties in Mexico are the National Action Party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party, and the Party of the Democratic Revolution. The current President is a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party.

Mexican Economy

Mexico is considered to have the 14th largest nominal Gross Domestic Product and the 10th largest Gross Domestic Product by Purchasing Power Parity. As a result, it is considered to be an upper middle-income economy and country. However, despite this economic status, the number of people living in poverty has increased. From 2006 to 2010, the number of people that were considered to be in moderate or extreme poverty increased from 35% to 46% of the population. In fact, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ranked Mexico second in the economic disparity between the rich and the poor. Mexico has the second largest electronics industry in the world and it also produces more automobiles than any other North American nation.

Transportation in Mexico

Mexico contains 366,095 kilometers or 227,481 miles of roads, but only 116,802 kilometers or 72,577 miles are paved. However, despite the large difference in unpaved and paved roads, Mexico has the largest paved-road network in Latin America. The Secretary of Communications and Transport had proposed and started a high-speed train project, which was projected to cost about $25 billion. The train is supposed to connect Mexico City to Guadalajara. Lastly, Mexico has 233 airports, but 35 have about 97% of the total passenger traffic. Mexico City International Airport is the largest Latin American airport and the 44th largest airport in the world.

Mexican Cuisine

Due to the various early setters in the region, current Mexican cuisine has received influences from many different cultures, especially Columbia and Spain. In general, Mexican food tends to include rice, beef, maize, avocado, chili pepper, beans, and many other ingredients. However, due to geographical and climate differences, each region has its own specialty. Northern Mexico is known for beef, goat, and ostrich dishes. Central Mexico is known for carnitas and tamales. Southeastern Mexico typically makes spicy vegetable and chicken dishes. Lastly, in the regions near the Pacific Ocean or Gulf of Mexico, seafood dishes tend to be very popular.

Demographic Challenge in Mexico

Health Care in Mexico

Since the start of the 21st century, Mexico has taken many steps in improving its health care system. In December of 2006, the government established Health Insurance for a New Generation, which essentially granted insurance to babies. In May of 2009, the government established Universal Health Care for Pregnant Women. Then, in 2012, the entire United Mexican States established a universal healthcare system. Because of the universal healthcare system, health care is either completely free or subsidized for all citizens, if they choose to use the public health system. Typically, a visit to the doctor’s office will cost $25 and a night’s stay in a hospital will cost $30. Private hospitals and private insurance policies still exist and can be used if a person is willing to pay for it. In fact, private facilities account for 13% of the country’s total facilities. Lastly, 97% of the population has access to potable water and 90% of the country has access to sanitized water.

population-of-mexico-2014-education

Education in Mexico

Education in Mexico has three main stages, two of which are considered compulsory: primary, junior high school, and high school. Primary school is made up of grades one through six. Some primary schools are bilingual, helping the students master another prominent language. The Spanish word for “school”, escuela, describes primary school. Junior high school is grades seven through nine. During this portion of schooling, students are introduced to specific topics such as Chemistry or World History. High school, which is not mandatory for students, is grades ten through twelve. During the first few semesters, the students take a common curriculum. However, near the end of the program, students can take specialized electives, such as philosophy or economics. Students can also enter into a vocational training program to train them for skilled labor jobs in the market. Lastly, only about 23% of Mexican youth (ages 23-35 years) have an undergraduate degree from a college or university.

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Mexico Population 2015

Population of Brazil 2016

population-of-brazil-2014Population of Brazil 2016

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rates, and the population of 2013, the current population of the Federative Republic of Brazil is estimated to be about 201,398,858. As a result, Brazil is the fifth-most populous country in the world, behind Indonesia, but ahead of Pakistan. The current population indicates a growth of about 2,077,858 or a population growth rate of about 1.04%. Based on the total land area and the total population, the population density of Brazil in 2016 is about 23.65 people per square kilometer or 61.26 people per square mile.

Geography of Brazil 2016

Brazil has a total area of 8,514,876 square kilometers or 3,287,612 square miles, making it the fifth largest country in the world in terms of area. Due to its larges size, it borders every country in South America, except Ecuador and Chile. Brazil is located along the equator, which is the cause of much of its climate. Geographically, the northern portion of the country is the lower, flatter region. It is made up of rolling terrains and low, rounded hills. However, the southern region is made up of mountain ranges and ridges. Some mountain ranges include the Serra do Mar and the Mantiquiera. Some of the major rivers in the country include the Amazon, which is the world’s second longest river, and the Parana River.

Climate of Brazil 2016

There are five major climate regions in Brazil: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. These drastically different regions are the reasons for the existence of both semiarid deserts and equatorial rainforests. However, the northern portion of the country is made up of mostly equatorial climates. The average temperature in this region is about 77°F, but there is a large variation in temperatures throughout the day. In terms of rainfall, the northeast receives extreme seasonal rainfall, but the semiarid region tends to have, on average, less than 32 inches of rainfall per year. However, in regions south of Bahia, rain tends to fall consistently throughout the year. Lastly, the southern region tends to experience cooler temperatures and climates, sometimes even some frost and snow.

Government of Brazil 2016

The political system in Brazil is considered to be a democratic republic. Founded upon the principles of sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism, the government is made up of three separate branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected, while the members of the judicial branch are appointed after passing an exam. The four main political parties are the Workers’ Party, Brazilian Social Democracy Party, Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, and the Democrats. Voting in the elections is required for all literate citizens from ages 18 to 70. Lastly, the Brazilian Constitution is considered to be a very important document in the government and political system.

Transportation in Brazil 2016

The most common form of transportation for both people and freight is considered to be road travel. As of 2010, there was almost 2 million kilometers of roads in Brazil. Of the approximate 2 million kilometers of roads, about only 200,000 kilometers of roads are actually paved. Another important form of freight transportation is waterway transportation. In total, there are thirty-six deep-water ports. The usage of railways and trains has decreased over the years and some railways have even been shut down. Lastly, there are approximately 2,500 airports in all of Brazil, which gives it the second highest number of airports behind the United States of America. The largest airport in Brazil is the Sao Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport.

Health Care in Brazil 2016

As of 1988, the Brazilian Constitution guarantees that everyone legally in Brazil has the right to access medical care and coverage. As a result, there is a public national health system provided by the government. The public health care system is free to anyone that is legally in Brazil. This coverage includes free doctor’s visits, prescription drugs, hospitalization, and even surgeries. Although there is a free, public system, there also exists a private system. People can choose to use the private system if they want, but it is not free to the public. Private health-care providers can receive subsidies from the government to help lower costs for the patient. Also, even if you have a private health plan and you wish to use the public system, you can still use the resources and services of the public system. Lastly, some health issues throughout the country include poor sanitation and drinking water, malnutrition, high infant mortality rates, and high disease and illness rates.

population-of-brazil-2014-economyEconomy of Brazil 2016

Brazil has the largest economy in all of Latin America and the seventh largest economy in the world. In 2016, according to the International Monetary Fund, the Gross Domestic Product per capita is $12,528, which ranks 77th in the world. The economy is supposed to grow to be in the top five economies in the world based on the projections of growth in Gross Domestic Product. It has the sixth largest work force in the world, totaling 107 million workers. Some of the major sectors of the economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and service. Lastly, Brazil is considered to have the fourth largest car market in the world.

Education in Brazil 2016

The Brazilian Constitution guarantees education for every citizen of Brazil, but also establishes that it is the supreme authority in terms of education. Each state and territory can make some extra regulations in regards to their specific schools, but the federal government must approve of the regulations. There are three main levels of education: fundamental, intermediate, and higher education. The higher education system is made up of undergraduate and graduate school. Education is required for every Brazilian citizen from the ages of 7 years to 14 years. There is a common core curriculum, along with the allowance for specifics to certain schools. The common core includes Portuguese, History, Geography, Physics, Biology, Science, and Mathematics. Lastly, the set school year involves 200 school days, even though the minimum is only 180 school days, which does not include test and exam days.

Language in Brazil 2016

Based on the Brazilian Constitution, Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Portuguese is spoken among almost the entire population as it appears in virtually every aspect of society. Because it is the only Portuguese-speaking country in Latin America, this difference gives Brazil a special identity and culture that separates it form any other Latin American country. In 2002, Brazilian Sign Language was officially recognized as a Brazilian language as well, in order to accommodate for the hearing impaired citizens of the country. In fact, the language is taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. Schools and hospitals are required to provide equal access and assistance for the hearing impaired. Despite these two official languages, there are countless numbers of Amerindian languages spoken throughout the country, however.

Brazil’s Geographic Challenge

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Brazil Population 2013

Population of Canada 2016

population-of-canada-2014Population of Canada 2016

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2015, the population of Canada for 2016 is estimated at 35,344,962, which makes up about 0.49% of the world’s total population. Canada’s population is ranked 37th largest, behind Uganda, but ahead of Iraq.

About 80% of the population lives within 150 kilometers or 93 miles of the United States border. The main areas of concentration are Quebec City-Windsor Corridor, British Columbia Lower Mainland, and Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. The aboriginal population is growing at a rate almost double the rate that the national Canadian population is growing. The country also has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world and accepts a large number of refugees from various countries throughout the world.

Government of Canada 2016

The Constitution Act of 1867 established the Canadian government as a federal constitutional monarchy. The government consists of a federal, legislative, and judicial branch and the Canadian Crown is the foundation of all three branches. Canada is part of the Commonwealth of Nations, which means that the Crown of Canada is also the Crown of England. Thus, the Crown of Canada is Queen Elizabeth II. Her role is mainly legal and practical instead of a political role. The Queen then appoints the Governor General of Canada, currently David Lloyd Johnston. The Governor General will then appoint the Prime Minister. Typically, the Governor General must pick the person that he or she knows can garner support and confidence from the House of Commons (thus, usually a member of the majority party). Currently, the Prime Minister of Canada is Stephen Harper, a member of the Conservative Party. The prime minister serves as the head of government and leads the Cabinet. The legislative branch consists of the Queen (under the representation of the governor general), the Senate, and the House of Commons. The Governor General will appoint all 105 members of the Senate, while the people elect the 305 members of the House of Commons. The legislative branch is responsible for passing laws and creating legislation. The governor general calls the parliament into session in the Queen’s name. The judicial branch is also performed under the Queen’s name and power. The Supreme Court of Canada is considered to be the court of last resort. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and eight other justices. The Governor General appoints the Chief Justice under the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The current Chief Justice is Beverley McLachlin. Under the Supreme Court is Federal Court, which works together with the Federal Court of Appeals and the Tax Court of Canada. Lastly, because of the presence of federalism, the legislative abilities are split between the federal and provincial governments.

population-of-canada-2014-economyEconomy of Canada 2016

Canada is considered to be one of the most developed countries in the world. Its economy is considered to be the world’s eleventh largest with a nominal Gross Domestic Product of $1.82 trillion. Toronto’s stock exchange is the seventh largest stock exchange in the world with about 1,577 companies involved in the exchange. As of February 2016, the unemployment rate is 7.0% of the working force population. The province/territory with the highest unemployment rate is Nunavut with an employment rate of 14.6% and the one with the lowest unemployment rate is Saskatchewan with a rate of 3.9%. Only five provinces/territories have unemployment rates lower than the national average. The Consumer Prince Index annual inflation in February was 1.1%. Lastly, as of December 2015, the monthly GDP growth was -0.5%.

Education in Canada 2016

The education system is controlled by each individual province and territory, instead of the national government. The literacy rate is 99% for both males and females. Overall, about 90% of Canadians have a high school degree and about 14% have a college degree. The nation as a whole spends around 5.2% of its Gross Domestic Product on education. Recently, the Canadian government has worked on an initiative that allows foreigners that studied and graduated in Canada to become permanent residents of Canada. Typically, students begin school in Kindergarten around age 5 or grade one around 6 and continue until grade twelve around age 17 or 18. However, Quebec includes one less year than the other provinces. Lastly, there are various religious and linguistic options for schools, including Protestant school systems and French school systems.

Health and Health Care in Canada 2016

The Canada Health Act of 1984 established the publicly funded health care system in Canada. As a result, Canada has a single-payer system, meaning that the government is the main single-payer of health care. If someone enrolls in the public health care system, he or she receives a health care issued by the Provincial Ministry of Health and receives the same quality and level of care as everyone else in the system. While the public system is available, about 28% of Canadians take part in the private sector of health care. Most times, Canadians purchase private health care for the purposes of the parts of health care that the system does not cover, such as prescription drugs and dentistry. Some criticisms of the public health care is the length of wait times for health care, restrictions on private care, and the number of people that cross borders to receive health care.
Life expectancy in Canada is the second highest among the G8 countries at 81.3 years on average. However, Canada has the second highest infant mortality rates among the G8 countries at 4.5 infant deaths per 1,000 births. In 2008, about 24.6% of the male population and 23.9% of the female population over the age of 20 were considered obese. 24% of the male population and 17% of the female population over the age of 15 use tobacco. Canada has the second lowest ratio of physicians and nurses per 1,000 people. There are only 2.2 physicians for every 1,000 Canadians. Thus, there are an estimated 77,759 physicians throughout Canada. There are also only 9.0 nurses per 1,000 people and thus about 318,105 nurses throughout Canada. Behind the United States, Canada has the second highest per capita expenditure on health care, spending about $3,895 per capita on health. However, the per capita rate in Canada is almost half the per capita rate in the United States. Canada spends 10.1% of its Gross Domestic Product on health care, compared to the United States spending 16% of its Gross Domestic Product. They also spend 16.7% of tax revenue on health care, compared to the United States spending 18.5% of revenues on health care. But, Canada pays for 69.8% of health costs, while the United States only pays for 45.4% of health costs.

Canada’s Geographic Challenge

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Canada Population 2015

Population of the United States 2016

population-of-united-states-2014Population of the United States 2016

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2015, according to the United States Census Bureau, the population of the United States of America for 2016 is estimated to reach 318,892,103, which makes up about 4.45% of the world’s total population. The United States is the 3rd most populous country in the world, behind India, but ahead of Indonesia. The population as of December 31, 2015 was estimated at 317,292,487. Thus, over the course of the year, the population is projected to grow by 1,599,616 people or by a growth rate of 0.5%. The last census was conducted in 2010 and it recorded the population at about 308,400,000 people. Thus, since the last census, the population has grown by 10,492,103 people or by an average annual growth rate of 0.85%. Based on the total population of the country and the total land area, the population density of the United States is about 34.8 people per square kilometer or 90.14 people per square mile.

Government of the United States 2016

The United States Constitution establishes the government as a constitutional republic and representative democracy, made up of the executive legislative, and judicial branches. The executive branch consists of the president, vice-president, and the cabinet, along with some other executive departments and agencies. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and has the power to veto bills passed by the legislation. He or she is considered both the head of state and the head of government. Presidents serve four-year terms and can only be reelected once. They are also voted into office by an indirect election through what is called the Electoral College. The current president is Barack Obama, a member of the Democratic Party, and is currently serving his second term. The current vice-president is Joe Biden, also a member of the Democratic Party.

The legislative branch is a bicameral legislation known as the United States Congress. Congress consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives consists of 435 members from the various states and each state is granted a certain number of representatives based on population. The states are divided into congressional districts, based on the number of representatives the state has. California has the largest number of representatives with 53 representatives. Members of the House are elected for two-year terms and have no limit to the number of terms that they can serve. The current speaker of the House of Representatives is John Boehner, a member of the Republican Party. The Senate consists of 100 members, two from each state. Senators are directly elected and serve six-year terms without a limit on reelection. The vice-president serves as the president of the Senate, so the current president of the Senate is Joe Biden. Congress has the ability to introduce and pass legislation and declare war. Lastly, the United States Supreme Court, made up of nine justices, heads the judicial branch. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is John Roberts. Once a justice is appointed to the Supreme Court, he or she can serve for the rest of his or her life without being elected. The president appoints the justices, subject to the approval of the Senate. Below the Supreme Court, there are many different levels of federal courts, including the United States Court of Appeals and the United States District Courts.

population-of-united-states-2014-prisonPrison Population in the United States 2016

Across the United States, there are 1.719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 2,259 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,283 local jails, and 79 Indian Country jails. Throughout these correctional facilities throughout the United States, there are over 2,400,000 million people in one of these facilities, which is about 0.75% of the entire country’s population. It is estimated that about 688,000 people are released from prisons every year. Also, about 12 million people are brought in and out of local jails every year. About 337,000 people are in one of these types of facilities for some sort of drug charge. There are also about 12,000 children in a correctional facility for simply violating their parole or probation by some technicality of the rules. There are even more than 3,000 children in facilities for committing crimes such as truancy or running away from home. Lastly, the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, even higher than Russia who is notorious for its harsh prison system. As of 2008, Louisiana had the highest incarceration rate in the country and Maine had the lowest.

Poverty and Inequality in the United States 2016

While income grew by 36.9% between 1979 and 2007, for the top 1% in America’s economy, income grew by 200.5%, while income grew only by 18.9% for the bottom 99%. In fact, the top 1% controls 53.9% of the total growth. The average income for a person in the top 1% is about $1,040,506, while the average income for someone in the bottom 99% is $42,694. A study conducted by the Brookings Institute indicates that the more economically vibrant a city is, the more unequal it is at the same time. In cities like Atlanta, Miami, Boston, and San Francisco, households in the 95th percentile of income make over 15 times the average income than those households in the 20th percentile. The cities with the lower levels of inequality were found to be throughout the South and the Midwest. Much of the reasoning behind the increasing levels of poverty and inequality is the heavy effect that the recession had on the working poor. While the rich were still getting richer, the poor were experiencing higher levels of unemployment and were subject to minimum-wage jobs, causing their incomes to decrease as a result of the recession. Lastly, studies have shown that the more unequal a society, the more problems that arise from growing poverty, such as lower levels of trust, higher levels of depression, higher levels of obesity, etc., affect society as a whole, not simply the ones suffering from poverty.

Health Statistics in the United States 2016

As of 2012, the under-five mortality rate is 7 deaths per 1,000 children. The infant mortality rate is 6 deaths per 1,000 infants, while the neonatal morality rate is 4 deaths per 1,000 babies. Overall life expectancy in the United States is about 78.8 years, with an average of 76 for men and 81 for women. As a result, the United States is ranked 26th out of 36 members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The average for the OECD is 80.1 years. The leading cause of death is heart disease, which accounts for about 615,000 deaths every year. According to the American Cancer Society, in 2016, there will be about 1,665,540 new cancer diagnoses and 585,720 cancer deaths. Lastly, it is projected that cancer will be the number one cause of death by 2030.

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